Migration is studied in work package 3. We analyse how immigration and internal migration in Finland shape the challenges of economic and social sustainability related to our ageing population at both the national and local levels. We also assess the impact of different policies on these processes.

The direct effects of immigration impact mainly the economically active or working-age population. Immigration can mitigate or reinforce the effects of ageing on demographic and economic dependency. In our research, we focus on the potential associated with this working-age population and the policies that affect it, but we also analyse the growing ethnic diversity of the ageing population.

In addition to the national level, immigration also has an effect at the local level. These effects generally vary  according to the level of urbanization. In addition, internal migration can have significant impact on local demographics as well as on the regional distribution of well-being and the local economy. Income transfers received by municipalities and households can affect this migration flow and thus also local sustainability challenges.

Focus of this work package

1. Economic integration of immigrants
2. The effects of immigration on the development of income inequality
3. Impact of integration policies
4. Ethnic diversity, retirement and access to health services
5. Impact of migration on age structure and dependency ratios at the local level
6. The effects on migration of income transfers received by municipalities and households


Timo Kauppinen

Research Manager Timo M. Kauppinen from THL is responsible for this work package.

Other researchers are